Today, metal forming is the most common method for producing workpieces, called forgings, which are then machined to achieve the required size and configuration of the part.
Forging - the process of deformation of a metal workpiece, which is in a plastic state and giving it the desired shape by the impact of the impact load of hammer or press strikers. A distinctive feature of forging is that the workpiece is in a free position during deformation, it does not have a clear positioning.
A forging is an intermediate billet obtained by the method of plastic deformation of metal, the peculiarity of which is its similarity with the future part or product in terms of overall dimensions and shape.
The forging manufacturing process goes through the following stages:
1. Cutting of rolled products of various configurations to the required dimensions.
Used rolled products can have round, square, rectangular and polygonal sections.
2. The process of metal deformation.
3. Heat treatment of the forging (normalization and tempering)
4. Acceptance of the finished forging by the technical control department.
The allowance for machining a forged forging is almost 2 times greater than that of a forging obtained by stamping. In production, forging is used only in small-scale and one-off production by two main methods, it is manual or machine.
Stamping is the process of deformation of a metal initial workpiece under pressure, which takes place using additional equipment (a special stamp). The plastic deformation process is carried out in a die matrix, the shape of which is completely identical to the forging being manufactured. The punch acts as a striking element exerting a load.
Stamping can be performed with or without preheating the original blank.
Stamping, in contrast to forging, has a sufficiently high productivity, it does not require high qualifications of workers, and at the exit the forging has a higher dimensional accuracy and low roughness of the surface layer. However, the use of dies is advisable only in mass and serial production in order to justify the costs of their expensive production.