Quality is in the details
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Development of design documentation
Before starting the manufacture of any product or part, it is necessary to prepare a set of working design documentation. Without well-designed drawings, it is impossible to estimate the cost and place an order in production. The design and technological department of the plant timely and efficiently develops design documentation for products using the latest technical and technological solutions, developments in accordance with the technical specification and established plans. For each order, drawings are prepared, the technical requirements of the order are assessed, the Customer is provided with a ready-made technical solution for the manufacture of ring blanks and finished products in accordance with the TOR. Qualified employees of the department take part in laboratory tests of the products under development, participate in the development of proposals on the prospects for the development and directions of new technology, the creation and implementation of new products, if necessary, participate in the work with complaints from the consumer. The analysis of deficiencies allows for the necessary improvements and modernization of the technology. The functions of the design and technological department of the plant also include: analysis of existing technological processes and their improvement in order to increase labor productivity, improve quality, reduce production costs; control of drawings of parts for manufacturability; development of serial and piece production of new products expansion of the standard-size range of manufactured products development and production of non-standard products organization of control of production processes adjustment of the developed technological processes in connection with changes introduced to the design and technology of products; development of special equipment (tools and fixtures), the need for which is identified during the development of technological processes.
Mechanical restoration
The blanks of pipeline parts and equipment components obtained by forging, casting, rolling, in the vast majority, do not have the dimensional accuracy and surface quality required for their installation in various equipment. The final operation in converting the workpiece into a part is metal cutting. Metal cutting is a technological process for the production of machine parts and equipment, which consists in cutting off with a cutting tool from the surface of the workpiece a layer of material in the form of chips to obtain a given geometric shape, accuracy and surface roughness of the part. Rolled products of various profiles, casting, forgings and stamping are used as blanks for future equipment parts. The ring blanks plant performs turning, turning and boring, drilling and milling works. To ensure control over the quality of machining for the conditions of single and small-scale production, the enterprise uses measuring instruments - calipers, depth gauges, protractors, micrometers, profilometers and other measuring devices. Metal turning. For the manufacture of parts with specified geometric parameters, metal turning is used, which makes it possible to obtain a surface in compliance with the requirements for the geometric dimensions and shape of parts, as well as the degree of surface roughness and the accuracy of their relative position. The technology of metal turning involves the use of special machines and cutting tools (cutters, drills, reamers, etc.), by means of which a layer of metal of the required size is removed from the part. The main types of turning works: processing of external cylindrical and conical surfaces; face and shoulder machining; grooving, parting off the workpiece; machining of internal cylindrical and conical surfaces; processing of shaped surfaces. Turning and carousel metal processing. For the processing of steel workpieces, which differ in impressive diameter and weight, but have a small height, lathes and carousels are used. Among the lathes of the boring-and-carousel group, the enterprise uses one- and two-column lathes. The former are equipped with faceplates with a diameter of up to 1300 mm for working with workpieces with a diameter of up to 1600 mm. On two-column machines, faceplates with a diameter of up to 2800 mm are installed to work with workpieces with a diameter of up to 3500 mm. The main types of turning - carousel works: production of cylindrical blanks; milling tapered parts; End trimming and trimming. Lathes and boring machines, due to the design features, are distinguished by reliability, high safety, ease of maintenance and operation. The use of vertical lathes in the performance of work allows: to obtain high precision and quality of manufactured parts; provide serial and custom production; reduce the number of scrap to a minimum; reduce material consumption; improve performance. Drilling work. Drilling processing is carried out on special drilling machines, where the workpiece is rigidly fixed, and the cutting tool rotates and simultaneously moves translationally along the axis of the hole drilled in the workpiece. The enterprise uses vertical drilling and radial drilling machines. Vertical drilling machines are used to drill holes in small workpieces, which are moved along the table during the adjustment process so that the axis of the drill and the axis of the future hole coincide. For work with heavy and large-sized workpieces, radial drilling machines are used. On them, the workpiece is immediately rigidly fixed on the table, and the machine spindle is set in the desired position. Rotary tables of various diameters are used to position the workpiece. Basic types of drilling: drilling cylindrical holes; reaming cylindrical holes (increasing the diameter). To combat heating, cooling is used with the help of cooling emulsions or cutting fluids (coolant). When drilling on machines, the fluid supply is organized directly to the place of drilling. Milling metal processing. Milling is carried out on vertical milling machines using various milling tools that are fixed in the chuck. Rotational force is transmitted to the chuck by means of the spindle, and the tool starts to rotate. Milling is a productive and versatile technological method for machining workpieces by cutting. At the enterprise, planes, ledges, grooves of rectangular and profile sections, grooves, shaped surfaces, etc. are processed by milling. For the processing of flat and shaped surfaces on milling machines, milling cutters are used - multi-flute (multi-edge) tools. Each cutter tooth is the simplest cutter.
Heat treatment
To relieve internal stresses that have arisen during the production of blanks, prepare the structure for final heat treatment (hardening) of the blanks and impart the required mechanical properties to the blank material, heat treatment is carried out. Heat treatment is carried out in shaft furnaces with automatic temperature control and recording. Heat treatment modes have been worked out for each steel grade, taking into account the specific features of electroslag remelting to obtain cast billets and obtain the required levels of mechanical properties. The type and mode of heat treatment is set by the manufacturer depending on the required mechanical properties. Some modes of heat treatment are shown in the table.
Determination of the chemical composition
The quality, reliability, durability of the product largely depend on the composition of the alloy used. Deviation from the specified chemical composition can lead to a negative change in properties. Determination of the chemical composition is one of the most important directions of the production activity of the enterprise, allowing to ensure the stability of technological processes and the required product quality. Stabilization of the metal melting process is achieved both by standardizing the composition of the initial charge materials and by direct control and regulation of the melting process according to the composition of the used and manufactured products. The accuracy and reliability of the control meet the conditions of continuous production. Such requirements are provided by the automation of analysis and control, from the composition of the initial charge materials to the receipt of finished products of a given composition and properties. To determine the chemical composition in the central plant laboratory of the plant, optical emission and X-ray fluorescent metal analyzers are used. Spectrometers are designed for quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of steels. For example, in carbon steels, you can determine the low content of elements such as carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorus, sulfur. The control of the chemical composition of steel is carried out during the acceptance of the metal supplied to the plant, on intermediate (ladle samples) samples during the production process, as well as for acceptance tests of finished products from steels of different grades. The results of the control of the chemical composition of the metal are drawn up in the accompanying documentation and registered in the passport of the incoming control.
Control of mechanical properties
- Metal testing is necessary to establish strength, which is especially important for its further use. - Tensile tests are carried out on specialized machines, where the samples are placed in special tensile machines, where they are stretched to failure, that is, rupture. At the moment of testing, the speed does not change, while the values ​​of ultimate resistance, yield strength, relative elongation, relative contraction are determined. - Impact testing of materials is based on the destruction of a standard sample with a U or V - shaped concentrator (notch) in the middle by impact on a pendulum impact device, both at positive and negative temperatures. Impact testing evaluates the performance of a metal under difficult loading conditions and reveals its tendency to brittle fracture. With a decrease in temperature, the impact strength decreases, therefore, along with tests at normal temperatures, impact tests with pre-cooling to temperatures from -400C to -700C are used. Cold chambers are used to cool the metal, the source of low temperature in which is liquid nitrogen or alcohol. - Brinell hardness control HB The essence of the method consists in pressing a ball (steel or hard alloy) into a sample (product) under the action of a force applied perpendicular to the sample surface for a certain time, and measuring the diameter of the indentation after removing the force.
Non-destructive testing
Inspection of internal defects of castings by the method of ultrasonic testing (UZK) is carried out during the development of the technological process and, if required, in the drawings of the parts. The ultrasonic inspection method has certain advantages: mobility in use to control defects, safety in use, no need for protective chambers. Ultrasonic inspection quality group from 2n to 4n GOST 24507. Portable ultrasonic flaw detectors and tomographs allow you to monitor defects in castings with wall thicknesses up to 400 mm with the ability to determine the depth of the defects.
Macro and microstructure research
During the development of the technological process, metallographic studies of the castings of the pilot batch are carried out: Macro-structural analysis. The study of the structure of metals and alloys with the naked eye or at low magnification, using a magnifying glass, is carried out after preliminary preparation of the investigated surface (grinding and etching with special reagents). As a result, the following are installed: fracture type (viscous, brittle); size, shape and arrangement of grains and dendrites of cast metal; defects that violate the continuity of the metal (shrinkage porosity, gas bubbles, cavities, cracks); chemical heterogeneity of the metal caused by crystallization processes or created by thermal and chemical-thermal treatment; fibers in deformed metal Microstructural analysis. Study of a surface using light microscopes. Microsections are preliminarily prepared (grinding and polishing to a mirror surface). To reveal the microstructure, the surface is etched with reagents depending on the composition of the metal. After preliminary preparation, cracks, non-metallic inclusions, metal structure before and after heat treatment, etc. can be observed on microsections. It is possible to reveal the shape, size and orientation of grains, individual phases and structural components. Magnification - 50 ... 1000 times allows detecting structural elements up to 0.2 microns in size.
Products are packed in wooden boxes with mandatory preservation, in accordance with the requirements of GOST 9.014-78 for temporary anti-corrosion protection of metal products. For packaging, only high-quality materials are used to preserve the integrity of the container and the consumer properties of the products.
Marking is carried out by impact method using stamps in accordance with the requirements of the order specification, as well as GOST 33259-2015 and other standards for flanges. The marking contains the following mandatory information: is a trademark of the manufacturing plant. DN (nominal diameter). PN (nominal pressure). product type item drawing number product serial number steel grade products